Meet Joseph Poulshock (aka Dr. Shock)

DrShockWelcome to iLinguist.net, the blog of Dr. Joseph Poulshock (aka Dr. Shock), professor, author, photographer, singer-songwriter, and Editor of BeeOasis.com.

With over 20 years experience in language education, Joseph directs the English Language Program at Tokyo Christian University. He also teaches linguistics and language teaching methods in the Teacher Education Program Meiji Gakuin University. Continue reading

Talk: The Benefits of Big Reading

The Benefits of Extensive ReadingIn this two-part video presentation, I summarize the benefits of extensive (BIG) reading. In Part 1, I define extensive reading, using the phrase “reading BEE.” That is, extensive reading is Big, Easy, and Enjoyable.

In Part 2, I summarize the benefits of extensive reading, using the word MASTERFUL. That is, extensive reading helps promote MASTERFUL English because of its relationship to the following factors.

  • Motivation: ER motivates reading and learning.
  • Attitude: ER improves attitudes.
  • Syntax: ER develops learner syntax and grammar.
  • Thinking: ER improves thinking, that is writing.
  • Ears: ER benefits listening skills.
  • Riches: ER enriches physical, emotional, and intellectual life.
  • Fluency: ER increases reading automaticity and fluency.
  • Uber-text: ER employs the supreme form of content, namely stories.
  • Lexis: ER improves vocabulary and word knowledge.

I’m posting these videos here for my linguistics students at Meiji Gakuin University, but if you find them helpful, please share them with your colleagues and friends.

(Part 1)

(Part 2)

Introducing iWordCount.net

iWordCount.net -- Make your words count!

iWordcount tools from BeeOasis.com are now free at iWordCount.net!

iWordCount.net is the free and easy way to count the words that you read or write. Just paste in your text and get your word count data. There are other features, too.

You can input your reading speed and get the reading time of your text. Reading data also shows you the *Reading Ease and the Reading Grade of your text.

If you sign in (it’s free!), you can track your words on your My Information page, just like at BeeOasis.com.

BeeOasis.com and iWordCount.net are helpful for learners and teachers who do extensive reading.

Readers can track word counts for books on the Log a Book page. Just input the Title, Publisher, and Total words in the book, and click “I read it! Honestly!”

Readers can also click “Search a book,” and our database will give you the Title, Publisher, and Total words of graded readers.

If you can’t find word count data for a book, use the WolframAlpha tool to estimate word counts. (1) Input the pages you read or will read. (2) Input the lines on one full page. (3) Input the number of words in three full lines. And (4) input the page space without text (pictures or blanks) in the first 20 pages of the book.

You can see a list of the books you read on your My Books Page. And with a free teacher’s account, teachers can track word counts for groups of readers. Contact support (at) beeoasis.com, and ask for a free teacher’s account for BeeOasis.com or iWordCount.net.

Make your words count at iWordCount.net! Brought to you by BeeOasis.com, with over 1,500 stories for learners of English, and where English learners read big!

*Reading Ease and Reading Grade are based on Flesch–Kincaid readability scores. Word counts for stories are only available at BeeOasis.com.

Doing Extensive Reading with SCRUM

scrumTo promote extensive reading, we show how teachers can use Scrum (Sutherland & Sutherland, 2014), an established method for efficiently managing projects. Our preliminary results show that Scrum may markedly help students increase the amount they read, possibly contributing to a 60% increase in reading word counts.

First, we outline a 10 step process for using Scrum to promote extensive reading. (1) Pick the General Scrum Reading Manager (the teacher). (2) Make teams of 3-4 members who will meet for a weekly Scrum. (3) Pick Reading Scrum Masters for each team. (4) Using post-its, each group makes a “Book Pile” of books that they want to read. (5) On their post-its, each member estimates how long a book will take to read. (6) Students set Reading Sprint Goals for the week. (7) Students make work visible, using the Scrum Board. (8) During Weekly Scrum, group members ask each other the three key Scrum reading questions. (9) Every 2 weeks, groups Report and Review their progress to the class. (10) At each Report and Review, groups reflect on how to improve.

During a period of four weeks, 27 students did a total of four reading Scrums. We then compared student reading word counts between the four week period before they did Scrum and the four week period while they did Scrum.

The results were encouraging. During the four week period before Scrum, each student read an average of 28,670 words. During Scrum, each student read an average of 46,919 words. This is nearly a 64% increase in reading amount.

At this point, we cannot claim that Scum will greatly increase student reading amounts. There are other variables that may have contributed to the increase for our students. However, this study does show the potential of Scrum for helping students read more, and we suggest that other teachers and researchers try Scrum in more rigorous experiments to see if it really works for promoting extensive reading.

This paper was presented at the 9th Annual Extensive Reading Seminar held at Nanzan University in Nagoya, Japan on October 1, 2016. The original title was “Applying Scrum Principles to ER Instruction,” by Joseph Poulshock and Douglas Forster. Click here for a PDF of the talk.

Reference
Sutherland, J., & Sutherland, J. J. (2014). Scrum: The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time. New York: Crown Business.

Element 13: Applied Linguistics

The Dark Side of Linguistics Applied

In the 1920s, Francisco Franco was the youngest general in Spain. Being conservative and a man of tradition, he was shocked when, in 1931, Spain removed the Monarchy and replaced it with a republic.

A few years later, the conservatives lost the elections, and Franco and his friends took drastic measures. They tried to take over the government with military power. They were only partly successful. What followed was the Spanish Civil War.

Franco received help from Italy and Nazi Germany. The Spanish Civil War lasted for 3 years. By 1939 Franco had won, but during the war, over a half a million people died, and Franco became the absolute ruler.

Hitler and Franco (Photo: bitly.com/abceshitlerfranco

Hitler and Franco (Photo: bitly.com/abceshitlerfranco

He called himself “El Caudillo,” or the Head. He controlled both the military and the state. As absolute leader, Franco acted with violence toward his political and ideological enemies. Between 200,000 to 400,000 people died in forced labor camps, concentration camps, and in executions.

Franco also enforced a strict language policy. In answer to the question, “What should we do about language?” he was clear.

For legal and government documents, only Spanish could be used. You could not use the minority languages of Catalan, Galician, or Basque for a legal document. If you did, the document was void. Spanish law also forbade the use of these languages in shop signs, road signs, advertising, and in schools. The rule was clear for all of Spain. “Si eres Español, habla Español.” If you are Spanish, speak Spanish.

Image (Spanish Wikipedia)

Image (Spanish Wikipedia)

Franco’s language policy (See Mar-Molinero, 2000) shows the dark side of what powerful people can do when they make decisions about language. Tragically, Franco decided his language policy purely by political motives. However, from an academic perspective, applied linguistics can help inform these kinds of policy decisions.

Solving Real World Problems

Applied linguists use knowledge about language and apply it in the world. According to Schmitt (2010, pg. 1), “Applied linguistics is using what we know about (a) language, (b) how it is learned and (c) how it is used, in order to achieve some purpose or solve some problem in the real world.”

With this definition, we can rethink the old Spanish language policy. (A) What do we know about the 4 main languages of Spain: Catalan, Galician, Basque, and Spanish? (B) How are these languages learned? (C) How are they used? What should we do about this for schools, government documents, advertising, etc.?

Today in Spain, minority languages have a co-official status in the whole country. For instance, in Catalonia (where Barcelona is the capital), Catalan is the language of education, and students are required to learn it in schools. Today there are 3.75 million native speakers of Catalan, and around 5 million people use it as a second language. (See Ethnologue.)

AppliedLinguistics400x290These are big issues. Though applied linguists tend to focus on language education, it is difficult to separate the principles of language learning from language policy. For example, as of 2015, the United States has more Spanish speakers than Spain. It is the second largest Spanish speaking country in the world after Mexico. If many children come to American schools that are native speakers of Spanish, how should schools manage the language education of these children?

Should we “mainstream” these students: give no attention to their first language? Or because they come to school as native speakers of Spanish, should we teach them to read in Spanish first, and then teach them to read in English?

Research in applied linguistics supports the second option. It’s easier for kids to read in a language that they already know. Moreover, after they learn to read in their L1, they can more easily learn to read in their L2 because the L1 reading skills form the basis for their L2 skills. Thus, if leaders want these children to participate in American life using English, so the argument goes, they make it easier for students to read and use English by teaching them to read in Spanish first!

Applied linguists mainly focus on these kinds of educational questions, but the field is broad. We can see the full scope of applied linguistics in the following activities as outlined by Cook (2003) and Schmitt (2010).

Education

  • First-language education. Children study their home language or languages.
  • Second-language education. Students study their country’s official language that is not their home language, for example native Hindi speakers in India who study English.
  • Foreign-language education. People study a foreign language, for example, Japanese children who study English.
  • Clinical Linguistics: Medical professionals study how to treat speech and language impairments.
    Language-testing. Educators study how to assess language achievement and proficiency.
  • Deaf education. Educators decide on which form of sign language to use how to educate the hearing impaired.

Work and Law

  • Workplace communication: Researchers study about how language is used at work and how it affects status and power relations.
  • Language planning: Leaders make laws about the place of languages in government and education. For example, the Ministry of Education decides when children start studying English.
  • Forensic linguistics: Lawyers and police evaluate language as evidence in legal investigations. For example, a man is killed, and Joe Blow is accused of the murder. The accuser brings a written text and claims that Joe Blow wrote it. In the text, a man says that he is going to kill the victim. Linguists and lawyers evaluate the text. Do the linguistic patterns in this text match Joe Blow’s style of writing or not?

Art, Interpretation, and Persuasion

The Oxford English Dictionary (Wikipedia)

The Oxford English Dictionary (Wikipedia)

  • Stylistics: Linguists analyze the linguistic aspects of literature.
  • Critical Discourse Analysis: Critics analyze and criticize how we use language to persuade and control others.
  • Design: Designers think carefully about how they use text in design, for example in typography.
  • Lexicography: Language experts plan and create dictionaries and bilingual dictionaries.
  • Translation: Interpreters and translators make and use principles that guide how we render ideas between languages.

The Value of Applied Linguistics

What Should Every EFL Teacher Know?

Paul Nation’s Book on Best Practices in EFL Teaching

Obviously, applied linguistics deals with many issues that affect us on a day-to-day basis. Whenever we look at a text on a well-designed advertisement, whenever we look up a word in a dictionary, whenever we listen to a politician persuading an audience, we are living within the scope of applied linguistics.

Nevertheless, as stated before, applied linguistics mainly deals with languages and how they are taught and learned. And if applied linguistics is worth anything to us, it should give us insight into the best ways to teach and learn our first and additional languages.

Fortunately, there is good news. Though we are far away from making a perfect pill that gives us native-like fluency with an additional language, we do have many approaches, methods, and techniques that can help us more efficiently and effectively learn languages. For example, with the “RISE-&-GO” principle, we will look at research from educational psychology and apply it to language teaching and learning.

References

Cook, G. (2003). Applied Linguistics (1 edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mar-Molinero, C. (2000). The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization. London : New York: Routledge.

Schmitt, N. (2010). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (2 edition). London: Routledge.

Element Twelve: The Rewards of Reading

Outside of a dog, a book is man’s best friend. Inside of a dog it’s too dark to read. – Groucho Marx

It’s a common English phrase. “A dog is man’s best friend.” Dogs tend to love their masters without conditions. A good dog just wants to be with you. In the above quote, the comedian Groucho Marx is making a point and a joke. We see the joke in the word play with “outside” and “inside.” In this sentence, “outside” means “Besides or second to a dog, a book is man’s best friend.” But when we get to the word “inside,” we see the joke. Now Groucho is talking about being inside a dog, where there is no light and where it is too dark to read.

OutsideDog500x362Okay, it’s a silly joke. But it reminds us that books can be our friends. In today’s world, many people act like their smart phones are their best friends. They would rather text their friends, update their Facebook page, and play games on their phones. To be fair, smartphones are great, and I use mine a lot! But maybe a book can be a better friend than a smartphone. Why? For one, when we read a book, we can actually be with the author and the characters in the story. I may never meet J.K. Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter stories. I may never meet my favorite singer, Bob Dylan. I will never meet Gandhi, Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, Shakespeare, Martin Luther King, and many other people that I admire. But I can meet them in books about them and the words they have written.

The author C.S. Lewis said, “We read to know we are not alone.” With a good book, you can sit in a comfortable chair all by yourself and enjoy a wonderful evening. If you are reading a good story, you might forget about the time; you might even accidentally stay up way too late because you entered the world of the characters and the mind of the author. Readers often say that they enter a state of “flow” when they read (Csikszentmihalyi, 2002). With flow while reading, we experience focus, joy, clarity, motivation, and timelessness (forgetting about the time). One simple way to explain this is that reading for pleasure is like play. In fact, it is play.

Reading Extensively

Though we can honestly say that pleasure reading is play, we can experience many other kinds of rewards from reading besides enjoyment. Of course, we can get these rewards when we read in our native languages. But language learners can also reap many rewards from what we call extensive reading (ER).

For language learners, ER has three rules. The first rule is “Read easy.” You should know 95% to 98% of the words in a text. This helps you read without a dictionary and makes reading more enjoyable. ER books are graded into levels, so you can find books at the right level for you. The second rule is “Choose freely.” You are free to choose what you want to read. The third rule is “Read big.” This means read a lot! What happens when you follow these rules? You get results!

Dr. Hitoshi Nishizawa teaches English at the Toyota National College of Engineering. His students improved their English just by doing ER. Students who read 3 million words increased their TOEIC scores as much as those who studied abroad for one year in an English speaking country.What is more, students who read 6 million words improved more than those who studied abroad for one year! This shows that ER can equal or even beat study abroad! Reading 3 million words in one year is challenging, but you can do it in 45 minutes a day, or in 2 years, you can read 3 million words in about 20 minutes per day.

ER, Traditional Study, and Literacy

Now, some people doubt that ER can be so effective. “English requires complicated study,” they say. “Maybe ER works, but traditional study, such as language drills, or deliberate grammar study is more effective.” But that simply is not true. Research by Dr. Beniko Mason (2011) shows that ER alone can improve TOEIC scores around 0.75 points per hour. In some cases, readers improved 3 times faster with ER than by traditional study.

ER can improve your English skills, but reading still does much more. Reading also increases global wealth, health, and equality for women. If a girl is born to a mother who can read, that girl is twice as likely to live past the age of five. If all children in poor countries could learn basic reading skills, 171 million people could leave poverty behind.

Literacy — the ability to read and write — can defeat poverty. Perhaps no one is working harder on this problem than Mr. John Wood. Formerly a top executive at Microsoft, Wood left his high-paying job after a life-changing experience. While hiking in Nepal, Wood visited a village school. He loved books, so he asked the headteacher to show him the library. But to his surprise, the library had no books! Wood asked, “Where are the books?”

The teacher replied, “We don’t have enough money. We can’t buy books for the children.” Wood remembered his childhood, his weekly visits to the library, and reading with his mother and grandmother. The teacher spoke again. “Perhaps, sir, you will someday come back with books.”

John Wood and Room to Read

One year later, John Wood returned with 3,000 books. He saw the joy on the children’s faces; he saw the hope in their eyes, and he was moved. Eventually, he left his job at Microsoft to start an organization that brings books to children. Today that organization is called Room to Read. Room to Read has built 18,689 Literacy Program Schools. It has delivered 18 million books, benefiting 10.7 million children.

Wood says, “If we don’t reach these young children, we plan their poverty.” That’s why in 2014 John Wood and his team raised 42.9 million dollars in cash donations for Room to Read. The money will buy books and build libraries for children. It will help little girls and boys stay in school. Room to Read provides native-language books for children. Then, after students learn to read in their first language, they learn to read in English. John Wood explains: “English is the uniting language in the world. If you speak English, you can speak to 3 billion people.”

Reading is Smart

Learning about Room to Read, we see that literacy and reading are keys to international development, but reading does much more than that. Reading also makes you smarter. It builds knowledge and skills that help you live. This useful knowledge is called general or “crystallized intelligence,” and studies show that reading builds it.

Reading builds your verbal intelligence. Strong readers have bigger vocabularies than those who read little. Books use rarer words than television and adult conversation. Thus, reading is more important than listening and speaking for growing vocabulary. Reading builds your social smarts. By reading good fiction, you can better understand your feelings and the feelings of others. This is called “emotional intelligence,” and research shows that reading good fiction improves it.

Reading can get you a better job. An Oxford University study showed this. High school students who read outside of school were more likely to get managerial or professional jobs as adults. Reading was the only out-of-school activity to explain this difference. Reading makes you smarter. It gives you word power. It can help you to get a better job. Reading increases wealth, health, and equality in the world. And extensive reading can greatly improve your English!

But Reading is Boring!

Even if we know about the rewards of reading, some people still say that “Reading is boring!” This is true. There are many boring books in the world. But there are also many wonderful books and stories. The BBC reports that the Harry Potter books have sold over 450,000,000 copies. If these books were not really interesting, they would not have sold this much. The key then is to find the books that you like. If you haven’t found the joy of reading, then try comic books, books for children, science fiction, murder mystery, or love stories. Just be sure of this: an amazing book is waiting for you. You just have to find it, and when you do, you can begin to reap the rewards of reading!

Note: This is an updated and revised version of an article I wrote for the Asahi Weekly, published June, 29, 2014. 

References

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). Flow: the classic work on how to achieve happiness. London: Rider.

Mason, B. (2011). Impressive gains on the TOEIC after one year of comprehensible input, with no output or grammar study. The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(1), 1–5.